segunda-feira, 17 de outubro de 2016

Liverpool F.C.–Manchester United F.C. rivalry

Resultado de imagem para flag england
Resultado de imagem para Liverpool F.C.–Manchester United F.C logo

The Liverpool F.C.–Manchester United F.C. rivalry also known as North-West Derby is a high profile inter-city rivalry between English professional football clubs Liverpool and Manchester United. It is considered to be one of the biggest rivalries in the football world along with the Superclásico in South America, El Clásico in Spain, and Derby della Madonnina in Italy, and is considered the most famous fixture in English football.[5][6][7][8][9] Players, fans and the media alike often consider games between the two clubs to be their biggest rivalry, above even their own local derby competitions with Everton and Manchester City, respectively.[10][11][12][13]
The rivalry has been fuelled by the proximity of the two major cities that they represent, their historic economic and industrial rivalry, significant periods of domestic footballing dominance and European success, and their popularity at home and abroad, as two of the biggest-earning and widely supported football clubs in the world.[14][15][16][17]
The two clubs are the most successful English teams in both domestic and European competitions; and between them they have won 38 league titles, 8 European Cups, 3 UEFA Cups, 4 UEFA Super Cups, 19 FA Cups, 12 League Cups, 1FIFA Club World Cup, 1 Intercontinental Cup and 36 FA Community Shields.[18][19][20][21]

Inter-city rivals

The cities of Liverpool and Manchester are located in the north west of England, 35 miles (56 km) apart. Since the industrial revolution there has been a consistent theme of rivalry between the two cities based around economic and industrial competition. Manchester through to the 18th century was the far more populous city, and held a position of significance and notability as representative of the north. By the late 18th century, Liverpool had grown as a major sea port – critical to the growth and success of the northern cotton mills. Over the next century, Liverpool grew to supersede Manchester and throughout the late 19th and early 20th century was often described as the British Empire'ssecond city.[16] The links between the two cities were strengthened with the construction of the Bridgewater Canal, the Mersey and Irwell Navigation and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway for the transport of raw materials inland.

The Manchester coat of arms formed the foundation of the original Manchester United badge
The construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, funded by Manchester merchants, was opposed by Liverpool politicians and bred resentment between the two cities. Tension between working class Liverpool dockers and labourers in Manchester was heightened after its completion in 1894, just three months prior to the first meeting between Liverpool and Newton Heath in a play-off match that would see Newton Heath relegated to the Second Division.[22]
Today, the crests of both the city of Manchester and Manchester United include stylised ships representing the Manchester Ship Canal and Manchester's trade roots. The ship is also included on the crest of many other Mancunian institutions such as Manchester City Council and rivals Manchester City F.C.
Post-war shifts in economic ties, reliance on regional coal, and shifts in transatlantic trade patterns caused by the growth of Asian labour markets caused the gradual decline of British manufacturing. While the city of Liverpool suffered the loss of its primary source of income to southern port cities, Manchester maintained some of its manufacturing heritage. This reversal of fortunes happened against the backdrop of shifting political backgrounds and significant events in British culture and society in the second half of the 20th century.
The two cities continue to be strong regional rivals, vying for influence of surrounding areas. Their continued importance to the UK economy has been reflected with the awarding of the 2002 Commonwealth Games to Manchester, while Liverpool was awarded the title of 2008 European Capital of Culture as part of its ongoing regeneration.
More recent projects by Peel Ports have sought to re-establish the economic links between the Port of Liverpool and Port of Manchester, including re-developing trade links via the Manchester Ship Canal.

Football rivals

Formation to 1945

A black-and-white photo of a football team. The players are on three levels, with four on the bottom row, four on the middle row and three on the top row. The player sitting second from the left on the bottom row has a ball at his feet, and the player in the middle of the top row is wearing a flat cap.
The Manchester United team at the start of the 1905–06 season.
Manchester United F.C. was formed in Newton Heath in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR F.C., and played their first competitive match in October 1886, when they entered the First Round of the 1886–87 FA Cup.[23]

Liverpool's team during its first season, 1892–93
Liverpool F.C. was formed in 1892 following a disagreement between the board of Everton and club president John Houlding, who owned the club's ground, Anfield. The disagreement between the two parties over rent resulted in Everton moving to Goodison Park from Anfield, and Houlding founded Liverpool F.C. to play in the vacated stadium.[24]
Liverpool's first season was in the Second Division in 1893. The team went undefeated all season, winning the title and being put up for election to the First Division, which would see them play a one-off "test match" at Ewood Park in Blackburn for their place. The team that Liverpool were to face was Newton Heath, whom they beat 2–0 to take their place in the First Division.[25]
Liverpool won their first Football League Championship trophy in 1901 and followed it up in 1906, the same season that saw the newly renamed Manchester United promoted to the top flight after finishing as Second Division runners-up behind Bristol City. Two seasons later, by which time Liverpool had fallen into mid-table, Manchester United secured their first league title, winning the 1907–08 Football League by nine points from Aston Villa and Manchester City. They followed this up by winning the first ever FA Charity Shield match when they defeated Queens Park Rangers over two legs in 1908.[26] The following season, they won the 1909 FA Cup Final, and followed this up with another league title and Charity Shield in 1911.
The outbreak of the First World War disrupted domestic football, and following the resumption of competitions in 1919 Liverpool asserted themselves on domestic football with a brace of league Championships while United found themselves in steep decline that saw them relegated in 1923. Between 1923 and the outbreak of the Second World War, neither team won any more competitive trophies outside of local regional trophies, with Manchester United spending three separate periods in the Second Division.

1945 to 1992

refer to caption
A comparative chart showing yearly table positions of Manchester United F.C. and Liverpool F.C. in theEnglish football league system from 1892–93 to the present
After the Second World War, Liverpool again became English champions in 1947 before the clubs' roles reversed once more, with the Merseysiders dropping into the second tier as Manchester United found stability under the management of former Liverpool captain Matt Busby, winning the FA Cup in 1948 and then three league titles and Charity Shields apiece in the 1950s. During this time, future Liverpool manager Bill Shankly was approached by then Liverpool chairman Tom Williams and asked, "How would you like to manage the best club in the country?". "Why?" Shankly replied. "Is Matt Busby packing it in?".[27]
Following Liverpool's promotion under Shankly in 1962, the two clubs found themselves in direct competition with each other for the first time, sharing four league titles between 1964 and 1967, as well as the 1965 FA Charity Shield. Following this, though, the two sides began to drift in opposite directions once more. United's title victory of 1967 would be their last for 26 years,[28] while Liverpool would enjoy nearly 20 years of sustained success, winning 11 league titles, 19 domestic cups and seven European trophies from 1972 to 1992.[29] United's main reprieves during this time came through cup competitions, such as their triumphs over the Merseysiders in the1977 FA Cup Final and the 1979 FA Cup semi-final replay at Goodison Park. It was during this period, in the late 70s and early 80s, that the modern day rivalry between the two clubs truly began to get heated. According to football sociologist John Williams, United had developed a "glamour and media profile" but didn't have the success to match it and Liverpool fans felt the Red Devils were "media darlings who got far too much publicity". There was a perception in Liverpool that their hugely successful but 'professional' and 'workmanlike' teams were always somehow in the shadow of the stars at Old Trafford. This led to a derisory United nickname in Liverpool; "The Glams".[30]


Manchester United's 26-year spell without a league title has been mirrored by Liverpool since 1990, when the Reds clinched their last league title. Meanwhile, United's dominance since 1990 has seen them win 13 league titles, 22 domestic cups and six European trophies.[29] Once again, cup glories such as the 2003 League Cup and 2006 FA Cup allowed Liverpool some retribution against their rivals. Despite their contrasting fortunes, though, only five times since 1972 have neither Liverpool nor United finished in the top two of the league table – in 1980–81, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2014–15 and 2015-16 – and even during four of those five campaigns, another piece of silverware was still taken home by one of the two clubs; Liverpool paraded the European Cup and League Cup in 1981, while Manchester United lifted the FA Community Shield and FA Cup in the 2004 season and Liverpool claimed the Champions League in 2005. United brought home the FA Cup again in 2016.[31]
Each club can now claim historical supremacy: United for their 20 league titles to Liverpool's 18 and Liverpool for being European champions five times to United's three. Manchester United have won more honours than Liverpool,[32][33] but it is disputed as to who has won more so-called "major" trophies.[34][35][36][37] Both clubs use these differing counts to refer to themselves as the most successful English football club.[38][39]


Notable managers

While Liverpool and Manchester United's successes are almost identical in number, their systems of achieving these successes vary considerably. Liverpool built their dominance on a dynasty known as the Anfield Boot Room. The boot room itself was where strategy for future matches was planned, however, it became a breeding ground for future Liverpool managers following the arrival of Bill Shankly in 1959. The original members were Shankly himself,Bob PaisleyJoe Fagan and Reuben Bennett, although the likes of Kenny Dalglish joined later on.[40]
Following Shankly's retirement in 1974, having secured eight trophies in 15 years, Bob Paisley stepped into the vacant manager's position and amassed 20 trophies in 9 seasons.[41] Following his retirement, Joe Fagan took over and in the first of two seasons at the club, won a treble of trophies. Kenny Dalglish, while not an original member, was accepted into the group as the next in line for the role of manager, and he combined it with his playing duties to win Liverpool 10 trophies. The boot room connection was finally broken in 1991, 32 years after Shankly's arrival, with the appointment of Graeme Souness, who actually demolished the boot room itself to make way for a press room.[42] It did still manage to produce a final Liverpool manager in Roy Evans, who won the League Cup, but upon his resignation in 1998, the era was over.
In contrast, Manchester United have succeeded thanks to the services of three extraordinary men, all decades apart, without the need for continuity and sustained success beyond each man's departure. Out of the 64 trophies that United have won, 56 have come thanks to the exploits of Ernest Mangnall, Sir Matt Busby and Sir Alex Ferguson. Mangnall was the first great manager of Manchester United, securing five trophies within a three-year time span of 1908-11.[43] Following his departure to local rivals Manchester City a year later,[44] it would not be until Busby's arrival 33 years later that the club would be on the trophy trail again.
Busby became United's second most decorated manager of all time (ironically as an ex-Liverpool player and captain), winning 13 trophies at the club[45] including the 1968 European Cup, which saw an English team secure European football's top prize for the first time.[46] After Busby's retirement in 1969 though, Manchester United saw their fortunes slip and the club struggled to stay successful until Alex Ferguson's arrival 17 years later, during which time United only won three FA Cups and two Charity Shields.
It was only under the Scot that United regained their glory days, winning 38 trophies during his 26-year tenure to scale the pinnacles of both English and European football.[48] However, since Ferguson's retirement in 2013, the club has gone on the wane again, finishing 7th in the first season post-retirement, not winning a trophy the year after and failing to reach the top four once again the season after that, although this was offset slightly with an FA Cup triumph.


Players' rivalry

The rivalry has extended to the players as well: United striker Wayne Rooney, a product of Liverpool's city rivalsEverton, described how he grew up hating the Reds,[49] while Liverpool's Steven Gerrard took a film crew on tour of his home where he showed off a collection of football shirts he had swapped with opposing players as part of the after match routine; he pointed out that there were no Manchester United shirts in there and he would never have one of them in his house. Former Liverpool goalkeeper David James said: "I could never say I hated any United players just for being United players... But the rivalry became a habit, I suppose; on England trips Liverpool lads would eat at one table, United boys at another. There was tension there and we avoided one other". Liverpool defender Neil Ruddock once broke both of United forward Andy Cole's legs in a reserve match, later saying that "I didn’t meant to break both legs, I only meant to break one... I absolutely destroyed him... I know it’s not big and it’s not clever but it was great".[50] Manchester United's Gary Neville has been publicly vocal in the past with regards to his dislike of Liverpool; following a fixture in which John O'Shea scored a stoppage-time winner in front of the Kop in 2007, Neville described O'Shea's achievement as "a lifelong dream" for himself. Neville was berated by Liverpool fans for his role in celebrating in front of them in 2006, kissing the crest on his jersey and appearing to shout angrily towards the fans. Previously in a Manchester derby during the 2003/04 season, Neville was sent off after attempting to headbutt Manchester City's ex-Liverpool midfielder Steve McManaman: as Paul Scholes commented, "It’s fair to say the pair of them never got on too well together".[50]
In the 2011–12 season, the rivalry was exacerbated by claims that, in the first League meeting of the season at Anfield, Liverpool striker Luis Suárez racially abused United's Patrice Evra. After considering the evidence, an FA panel found that Suárez had referred to Evra using the term "negrito" seven times (Suárez himself admitted to having done so once, but denied racism); he was banned for eight games. This included the FA Cup fourth round tie between the two clubs (again at Anfield), which Liverpool won. On 11 February 2012, however, United and Liverpool met again at Old Trafford, and Suárez played for Liverpool for the first time since his ban. Prior to kick-off, the two teams were expected to shake hands, but Suárez ignored Evra's offered hand and moved onto the next United player in line, David de Gea.[51] As a result, Rio Ferdinand and Danny Welbeck rejected Suárez's handshake. United went on to win 2–1 and Evra celebrated in front of the home supporters, with Suárez close by. Sir Alex Ferguson declared Suárez to be a "disgrace" and suggested that he should not be allowed to play for Liverpool again.[52] Kenny Dalglish vehemently denied having seen the missed handshake.[53] The following day, Suárez, Dalglish and Liverpool all issued statements of apology for the handshake incident,[54] which United accepted. The FA decided against any further action against either club or the players involved.[55]

Player transfers[edit]

Since the 1964 transfer of Phil Chisnall from United to Liverpool, no player has been transferred directly between the two clubs.[56] Some players, however, have played for both clubs, but having played elsewhere between each tenure, such as Paul Ince (playing for Internazionale in between) and Peter Beardsley (Vancouver Whitecaps and Newcastle United) and more recently Michael Owen (Real Madrid and Newcastle United), although Beardsley only played once for United, but went on to be a key player during his four years at Liverpool.[57]
In 2007, there was a bid from Liverpool to sign Gabriel Heinze from United, but United refused to allow him to join their biggest rivals due to the ongoing feud. United claimed that it was agreed Heinze would only join a foreign club if he chose to leave.[58] Heinze went public with his request to join Liverpool which was seen as the ultimate betrayal by the Manchester United fans. The Manchester United fans who once chanted "Argentina" in honour of the player then turned their backs on him. Heinze was eventually sold to Real Madrid instead.


A single tiered stand that contains thousands of people. Several flags are being waved. In front of the stand is a grass pitch with a goal.
Liverpool Kopites in The Kop stand at Anfield
Both Manchester United and Liverpool are among the most popular football clubs (and sporting organisations) globally. Both are in the top 25 in Europe with Manchester United considered to have the largest following of all, as well as having one of the highest average home attendances in Europe and boasting a large travelling support.[61] The club states that its worldwide fan base includes more than 200 officially recognised branches of the Manchester United Supporters Club (MUSC), in at least 24 countries.[62] Liverpool states that its worldwide fan base also includes more than 200 officially recognised branches of the LFC Official Supporters Clubs in at least 50 countries. Notable groups include Spirit of Shankly and Reclaim The Kop.[63]
The 2005 leveraged takeover of Manchester United by the Glazer family created a schism amongst Manchester fans, directly causing the creation of F.C. United of Manchester, and the "Love United Hate Glazer" movement, and subsequently the Red Knights who attempted to buy the Glazers out the club.[64][65] Two years later, Liverpool went through its own controversial takeover when Chairman David Mooressold the club to American businessmen George Gillett and Tom Hicks.[66] Disagreements between Gillett and Hicks, and the lack of popular support from fans, resulted in the pair looking to sell the club.[67] Martin Broughton was appointed chairman of the club on 16 April 2010 to oversee its sale.[68][69] Court action finally forced the sale of the club to Fenway Sports Group.[70][71]


With the rise of football hooliganism across English football during the 1970s and 1980s, matches between the two clubs brought some minor and major incidents of hooliganism.[citation needed] Since then, the modern game has seen a decrease in violence between the rival supporters and incidents are fairly uncommon. This is more likely due to an increase in Police presence and CCTV with huge steps taken to keep the fans separated. To this day, both sets of fans still hold a resentment toward each other. As well as physical violence, sections of the clubs' fan bases often taunt each other with unsavoury chants about the Munich air disaster and the Hillsborough disaster respectively.
At the 1996 FA Cup Final, an unidentified Liverpool fan spat at Eric Cantona and threw a punch at Alex Ferguson as a victorious Manchester United team walked up the steps atWembley Stadium to collect the trophy from the Royal Box.[72]
The 2006 FA Cup match at Anfield featured foreign objects thrown at United fans by Liverpool supporters, including human excrement.[73] Liverpool's FA Cup semi-final game against Chelsea at Old Trafford later that year also resulted in damage to the stadium, including graffiti about serial killer Harold Shipman.[74]
In March 2011, the Daily Mail reported that an FA Youth Cup game between the two clubs was marred because of "sick chants" about Hillsborough and Heysel coming from the Manchester United fans at Anfield. The article also claims that six Manchester United fans were ejected from the stadium due to bad behaviour.[75] Former Liverpool striker John Aldridge was at the game and told the Liverpool Echo that "the level of abuse was absolutely sickening".[76]
In March 2016, Liverpool fans were greeted with a banner on the M602 motorway in Salford that said 'murderers' and also had the Hillsborough Disaster date on it. UEFA took no disciplinary action against Manchester United. [77]

Significant games

1893 Test Match

1977 FA Cup Final

In 1977, the two clubs met in a cup final for the first time, when they reached the final of the FA Cup. The two clubs took to the field at Wembley on 21 May, with Liverpool having just won the league title, knowing that winning this game would put them on course for a unique treble as they had the European Cup final to look forward to four days later. However, United ended Liverpool's treble dreams with a 2–1 win, with goals from Stuart Pearson and Jimmy Greenhoff, five minutes apart with a Jimmy Case goal for Liverpool in between.[78]

1983 Football League Cup Final

Six years later, on 26 March 1983, the two sides met for the Football League Cup final. Goals from Alan Kennedy and Ronnie Whelan won the game 2–1 for Liverpool, afterNorman Whiteside had given United the lead. Liverpool collected the trophy for the third year in succession. It was the last of Liverpool manager Bob Paisley's nine seasons in charge (during which Liverpool had dominated the English and European scene) before his retirement, and his players allowed him to climb the 39 steps to collect the trophy from the Royal Box.[79]

Anfield 1988

On 4 April 1988, Liverpool were 11 points ahead at the top of the league and almost certain of winning the First Division title with barely a month of the league season remaining. United, in their first full season under the management of Alex Ferguson, were their nearest rivals. The two sides took to the field for a league encounter at Anfield and with the second half just minutes old the home side had a 3–1 lead with goals from Peter BeardsleyGary Gillespie and Steve McMahon, with United's only goal coming from Bryan Robson. Robson then pulled a goal back for United, and with 12 minutes remaining fellow midfielder Gordon Strachan equalised to force a 3–3 draw.[80]

Other notable games

Nearly six years after this clash, Anfield was the scene of another 3–3 draw in the league between the two sides, only this time it was the home side who climbed back from the jaws of defeat. On 4 January 1994, in the second season of the new FA Premier League, United took a 3-0 lead at Anfield in the opening 25 minutes with goals from Steve Bruce,Ryan Giggs and Denis Irwin. Liverpool managed to claw back to draw 3-3 with two goals from Nigel Clough and another from Neil Ruddock. It was one of the last games in charge of Liverpool for manager Graeme Souness, who had resigned by the end of the month.[80]
On 1 October 1995, United's Eric Cantona made his comeback to the side after serving an eight-month suspension for attacking a spectator in a game against Crystal Palace. His comeback game was against Liverpool in the Premier League at Old Trafford. United took an early lead through Nicky Butt, only for Liverpool's Robbie Fowler to score twice and give the visitors a 2–1 lead. However, United were awarded a penalty in the 71st minute and Cantona converted it successfully, forcing a 2–2 draw.[80] At the end of the season, the two sides met again at Wembley for the FA Cup Final. The game stayed goalless until the 85th minute, when Liverpool conceded a corner, which David Beckham swung into the box to be cleared by David James, only for Eric Cantona to fire home United's winner.[81] In March 2003, the two clubs once again met in a cup final, this time in the League Cup, with Liverpool lifting the trophy after goals from Steven Gerrard and Michael Owen gave them a 2–0 win.[82]

Alan Wiley shows a red card toNemanja Vidić of Manchester United on 14 March 2009
On 14 March 2009, the two sides met at Old Trafford in the Premier League. United were ahead at the top of the league and Liverpool were looking to make a late run to the title which had eluded them since 1990. United went ahead in the 23rd minute with a Cristiano Ronaldo penalty, but Fernando Torres equalised five minutes later for Liverpool, and a Steven Gerrard penalty just before half-time put Liverpool in the lead. United had Nemanja Vidić sent off in the 76th minute, and their misery was swiftly compounded by late goals fromFábio Aurélio and finally Andrea Dossena, condemning them to a 4–1 defeat, their heaviest at Old Trafford in any competition for 17 years.[83] Despite the loss, Manchester United were crowned league champions for the third season in succession,[84] with Liverpool finishing second.[85]
The league fixture on 11 February 2012 was marked by controversy regarding Liverpool striker Luis Suárez refusal to shake hands withPatrice Evra, following an eight-match suspension for racially abusing Evra in the previous meeting between the sides.[86][87] Following the 2–1 victory for United after a brace from Wayne Rooney, Evra in turn controversially celebrated right in front of Suárez, and was swept aside by opposition players finding the gesture provocative.

Liverpool F.C. v Manchester United F.C.
LocaleNorth West England
TeamsLiverpool F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
First meeting28 April 1894
Liverpool 2–0 Newton Heath(1893–94 Football League test match play-off)
Latest meeting17 March 2016
Manchester United 1–1 Liverpool
(2015–16 UEFA Europa League)
Next meeting17 October 2016
StadiumsAnfield (Liverpool)
Old Trafford (Manchester United)
Meetings total196[1]
Most player appearancesRyan Giggs (48)[2]
Top scorerSteven Gerrard (9)
George Wall (9)
Sandy Turnbull (9)[3][4]
All-time seriesLiverpool: 65
Drawn: 52
Manchester United: 79[1]
Largest victoryLiverpool 7–1 Newton Heath
12 October 1895
(1895–96 Second Division)

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